Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an Acute life-threatening disease, which reduces insulin production in the body and increases blood acids, ketones. Let us understand in deep.
What Is DKA?
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe, life-threatening condition of hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and ketonuria-characterized diabetes. It occurs when the ability of glucose to enter cells for use as metabolic fuel is inhibited by absolute or relative insulin deficiency, the result being that the liver rapidly breaks down fat into ketones to be used as a source of fuel. The overproduction of ketones occurs, causing them to accumulate and turn acidic in the blood and urine. DKA occurs mainly in patients with type 1 diabetes, but some type 2 diabetes patients do not find it uncommon. Glucose blood tests, serum electrolyte determinations, blood urea nitrogen evaluation, and arterial blood gas measurements are laboratory studies for DKA.
Symptoms Of DKA
The increase in polydipsia and polyuria is the most frequent DKA symptoms, which are experienced in an early stage. The following are other symptoms:
- Increased weight loss
- Nausea and vomiting
- Mild disorientation, confusion
- Depressed sensorium is rare but can occur when the condition is ignored or with extreme acidosis/dehydration
- Fever, thirst, chest pain, coughing, chills, Arthralgia.
Cells make up the tissues in the body sugar, which has huge amounts of carbohydrates, is a leading source of energy for them. Insulin usually lets sugar reach your cells. Your body cannot use sugar efficiently for energy without enough insulin in the body. This causes hormones to be released that break down fat as fuel, which creates acids known as ketones. In the blood, excess ketones build up and inevitably spill over into the urine.
An infection or other disease may lead to higher levels of certain hormones, such as adrenaline or cortisol, being released by your body. These hormones, sadly, counter the influence of insulin, often causing an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis. Popular culprits include pneumonia and urinary tract infections. Another cause can be a deficiency of insulin in the body.
Diabetic ketoacidosis will usually occur if you have type 2 diabetes. Likely in a few cases, the initial sign that a person has diabetes may be DKA.
The risk of DKA is highest when a person is suffering from type 1 diabetes or have irregular insulin doses.
A person should follow a strict diet and medication. If untreated, it can lead to unconsciousness. The following provides more information for the treatment of DKA:
- Hypoglycemia: It is a condition of low blood pressure. Insulin makes it possible for sugar to reach your cells, causing a decrease in your blood sugar level. You could have low blood sugar if the blood sugar level drops too quickly.
- Hypokalemia: It is a condition where potassium level in the body drops. When Your potassium level can drop too low because of the fluids and insulin used to treat diabetic ketoacidosis, the functions of your heart, muscles, and nerves can be affected by a low potassium level.
- Cerebral Oedema: It is a condition where the brain swells. Swelling in your brain can be produced by adjusting your blood sugar level too quickly. In children, especially those with newly diagnosed diabetes, this complication appears to be more common.
This disorder happens when the body doesn’t have enough insulin. Infection or other diseases may cause it. Thirst, frequent urination, nausea, stomach pain, fatigue, and confusion are signs of DKA. While it is true that DKA is a severe condition, it is also true that it is treatable with discipline. The article makes one aware of the causes, symptoms, and possible treatment, but it is advisable to seek a healthcare professional.
Complications with diabetes are frightening. But don’t let fear prevent you from looking after yourself well. This article will expand your horizons regarding DKA and is intended to make you aware of the symptoms, causes, risk factors, and treatment for the disease.